Analyzing the Mutual Effects of Urban Transportation (BRT Subway) and Urban Congestion on the Basis of Land and Housing Criteria by Using GIS
To benefit from all urban facilities including residential units, commercial, administrative, educational, health and recreational centers, the citizens are required to move towards them to provide their related needs and for that, they need a vehicle.
Subway is a public transportation system that moves passengers throughout the city without creating traffic problems. With detailed analysis and by least traffic intervention, BRT transfers many passengers as well.
Such public transportation systems have the advantage of moving many passengers, however, operation of their infrastructures impose huge expenses on the city and citizens. Therefore, detailed analysis is required in their locating, designing and construction.
Most efficiency of a public transportation system is in places that are mostly visited by people. The more congested residential, commercial, administrative health, educational, welfare, etc. units are in the city, the more public transportation system with high capacity is required. By the same token, the more efficient a public transportation system is, the more activities will grow around it.
Accordingly, for efficient public transportation system, it is required that the congestion of structures be in line with the operation of transportation system and be designed and implemented in coordination with each other. Hence, besides optimal use of public transportation, the scatteredness and inappropriate congestion of usage will be prevented and the obtained added value of creating a transportation system will be used for development of the city.
For a detailed identification of the relationship between public transportation system (subway and BRT) and congestion of different usages, a case study of Tehranpars neighborhood of district 8 where both systems are used, were conducted with regard to its location and the ArcGIS software was used.
153 urban blocks located in this neighborhood were analyzed at 0.05 level of significance. In analyzing each dependent variable, the difference during the implementation of the system and difference between blocks who have access or who do not have access to the system were used as the methodology in this research study.
Results of the study indicated an increase in annual rate of residential congestion, number of floors and population density as a result of subway transportation system as 0/05 %, 0/072 floors and 0/001 of individual in square meter respectively and decrease in the number of floors criteria with annual rate of 0/05 in areas under the influence of BRT stations. The findings of this study can be used in future development planning of the city.
Keywords: public transportation, congestion, locating information system, subway, BRT, ArcGIS
The studies related to city construction in recent decades indicate that without land use and urban congestion planning, an optimal living model in cities cannot be achieved. Urban regions are responsible for fulfilling the economic and social needs of their residents and to achieve this, transportation is the most vital factor. Since 25 % of global energy is consumed in intercity and intracity transportations, this issue (transportation) is an important element in urban sustainability.
Since, physical presence in different areas and indeed the use of public transportation is required to meet the daily needs, the extent of distance from public transportation stations is a determinant factor in the attractiveness of residential and commercial units. This issue has affected the price of different residential units as well as the model and degree of urban development in different areas.
One of the classic examples of this impact can be observed in the city of Bogata in Colombia, where the permit to create different building congestion and the number of floors in a residential and commercial area are issued according to the extent of distance from major public transportation station.
On the other hand, residential and commercial units which are located in valuable areas have affected the formation and development of transportation systems. Such mutual consequences is one of the influential factors in determining the value of housing, land and rent cost, which has turned into a serious problem in Tehran in recent years.
The method of permit issuance for congested structures in different areas has an influence on traffic condition of a region with regard to its transportation infrastructure. On the other hand, the existing transportation systems and their level of responsiveness affect the extent of urban congestion as well.
Significance of the study
Nowadays, comprehensive urban plans are prepared with the aim of creating the maximum adaptation between the urbanization policies and land use on the one hand, and optimal urban transportation system with regard to urban network characteristics on the other hand.
“In many cities of developing countries of the world, inappropriate development of different urban spaces, developing congestion of various usages in line with economic growth, followed by increase of intercity trips have caused numerous problems and concerns; On the other hand, neglecting the management as well as medium-term and long-term plans cause incongruity between the investment costs in transportation supply sector and related different characteristics in comparison to its demand. The concordance between main traveling usages and urban transportation policies and its infrastructures including services, health, educational, pedagogical and recreational services can have considerable impact on reducing the urban transportation costs and traffic congestion in metropolises. The past years experiences in developed countries have caused them to use more traffic demand control policies and lead them to simultaneous development of public transportation which is in line with urban developmental goals.” (Asgari Tafreshi, 2008).
“Urban development model which is mainly described in terms of congestion and distribution of activities is an indicator of the extent of proximity of the source and destination in intercity trips. Therefore, increasing use of urban land and logical distribution of urban activities can be useful in this sense.” Therefore, the importance of studying the relationship between urban transportation an congestion is felt more than any time before.